IBIZA DISCOVERED CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS


 

By Nito Verdera

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

IBIZA DISCOVERED CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

COLUMBUS’S ORIGINS AND POLITICS

THE ITALIAN COLUMBUS FALLACY

DIEGO COLUMBUS, THE NAVIGATOR’S BROTHER

BARTHOLOMEW COLUMBUS

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S NATIVE LANGUAGE

THE PORTUGUESE COLUMBUS FALLACY

THE MAJORCAN COLUMBUS FALLACY

THE CATALAN COLUMBUS THEORY

LUIS ULLOA CISNEROS

LUIS ULLOA’S GREAT MISTAKE

THE TARROJA DE SAGARRA COLUMBUS FALLACY

THE TRUTH ABOUT THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

COLUMBUS’S WRITING

COLUMBUS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. SOME IMPORTANT CLARIFICATIONS SHOULD BE MADE.

COLUMBUS AND JUDAISM

***FURTHER PROOF OF JUDAISM

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S DNA

COLUMBUS AND VESTED INTEREST

 

IBIZA DISCOVERED CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

 (CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. THE BOOK OF THE FALLACIES AND THE FOUR TRUTHS)

 I) PRACTICALLY EVERYTHING IS KNOWN ABOUT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS SUBSEQUENT TO HIS ARRIVAL IN LA RÁBIDA (HUELVA, IN ANDALUSIA, SPAIN) IN LATE 1484 0R EARLY 1485.

II) HISTORY IN ITS OFFICIAL VERSION TELLS US AGAIN AND AGAIN THAT COLUMBUS WAS ITALIAN, FROM GENOA OR SAVONA, BUT THE TRUTH OF THE MATTER IS THAT WHATEVER LENGTHS TO WHICH HISTORIANS MAY GO IN ORDER TO MAKE THE FACTS FIT THEIR THEORY, THE COLOMBO OR COLONNE BROTHERS THEY TALK ABOUT ARE VERY DIFFERENT FROM THE COLÓN BROTHERS REGISTERED IN THE SPANISH ARCHIVES.

III) I AM CONVINCED, AND I FIRMLY BELIEVE THAT I HAVE PROVED IN THE BOOK BEING PRESENTED HERE TODAY, THAT COLUMBUS WAS NOT ITALIAN, NOR PORTUGUESE, NOR FROM GALICIA, MAJORCA, BARCELONA, NOR FROM ANYWHERE WITHIN THE PRINCIPALITY OF CATALONIA.

IV) ACCORDING TO SCIENTIFIC FACTS GATHERED IN THE BOOK I AM PRESENTING TO YOU, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S MOTHER TONGUE WAS CATALAN AND HE WAS IN FACT A CONVERTED JEW AND MARINER FROM IBIZA (BALEARIC ISLANDS, SPAIN).

BEFORE GOING ANY FURTHER, I WOULD LIKE TO REMIND YOU THAT AS A PILOT IN THE MERCHANT NAVY AND ON SWEDISH SHIPS, I HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO SAIL TO COUNTLESS PARTS OF THE WORLD INCLUDING THE GREATER AND LESSER ANTILLES, THE COAST OF VENEZUELA, THE LEEWARD ISLANDS, COLOMBIA AND CENTRAL AMERICA, THE GULF OF MEXICO, FLORIDA, THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE BAHAMAS. AT THE SAME TIME, ALONG WITH MY CONSIDERABLE NAUTICAL EXPERIENCE, I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO EMPHASIZE THE FACT THAT I HAVE CARRIED OUT A LONG AND PAINSTAKING WORK OF JOURNALISTIC RESEARCH, WHICH, IN MANY WAYS, MORE RESEMBLED A POLICE INVESTIGATION.

CONSIDER THIS: IT WAS SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE, THE CREATOR OF SHERLOCK HOLMES AND HIS FAITHFUL COMPANION DR WATSON, WHO IN HIS BOOK THE SIGN OF FOUR PUBLISHED IN 1889, WROTE:

“HOW OFTEN HAVE I SAID TO YOU THAT WHEN YOU HAVE ELIMINATED THE IMPOSSIBLE, WHATEVER REMAINS, HOWEVER IMPROBABLE, MUST BE THE TRUTH?”

AS WELL AS DISPROVING ALL OTHER CLAIMS MADE FOR COLUMBUS’S ORIGINS, I PRESENT NEW AND RECENT STUDIES ON HIS FIRST LANGUAGE, THE IBIZA THESIS, HIS RELIGION, AND ALL THE INFORMATION SO FAR IN OUR POSSESSION RESULTING FROM THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES AND THE DNA TESTS THAT HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT.

I HAVE ALSO TRIED TO MAKE IT CLEAR THAT, AS GOVERNOR, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS WAS FAR FROM BEING THE CRUEL AND TYRANNICAL MAN AS HE HAS OFTEN BEEN PORTRAYED, AND INDEED DID NO MORE THAN APPLY THE LAWS OF THE CROWN AND PASS SENTENCE IN EXACTLY THE SAME WAY AS THE REST OF SPAIN.

IN ANOTHER APPENDIX CONCERNING THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA, YOU WILL SEE THAT JUAN PONCE DE LEÓN REACHED FLORIDA SOME 10 YEARS AFTER THE RATHER MORE SURREPTITIOUS ARRIVAL OF SOME CLANDESTINE PORTUGUESE SAILORS. I HAVE THEREFORE BASED MY STUDIES ON THE MAP DRAWN UP IN 1502 BY ALBERTO CANTINO.

IT IS MY DUTY AND PLEASURE, AT THIS TIME, TO THANK DR ESTELLE IRIZARRY, PROFESSOR AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, FOR THE PROLOGUE SHE HAS WRITTEN. SHE HAS HELD THE POST OF PROFESSOR IN THE SPANISH LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT IN THIS FAMOUS WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY FOR THE LAST 30 YEARS AND I CAN ASSURE YOU THAT SHE IS A GENUINE AUTHORITY ON THE MOST SENSITIVE AND DISPUTED ISSUES SUCH AS CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S NATIVE LANGUAGE AND RELIGION.

REFERRING TO THE CATALAN COLUMBUS FALLACY, DR IRIZARRY WRITES:

“IT IS DIFFERENT FROM THE REST IN THAT THE AUTHOR DOES NOT QUESTION THE CATALAN ORIGINS OF THE ADMIRAL, BUT FINDS FAULTS IN SOME METHODS AND CONCLUSIONS”.

COLUMBUS’S ORIGINS AND POLITICS

IN THE INTRODUCTION I HAVE TRIED TO HIGHLIGHT THE WAY IN WHICH COLUMBUS’S ORIGINS HAVE BEEN POLITICIZED.

THE FIRST PERSON TO DO SO WAS PEDRO MÁRTIR DE ANGLERÍA, THE ITALIAN HUMANIST IN THE SERVICE OF THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS WHO, ON MAY 14 1493, WROTE: “A FEW DAYS AGO A CERTAIN COLUMBUS OF LIGURIA RETURNED FROM THE ANTIPODES, WHO WITH GREAT DIFFICULTY OBTAINED THREE SHIPS FROM MY KING AND QUEEN …”

ON SEPTEMBER 13 1493 HE WENT ON TO SAY: REMEMBER, SINCE IT IS WELL TO REMEMBER IT, THAT COLUMBUS OF LIGURIA ….”

HOWEVER, IT TURNS OUT THAT NOBODY HAS BEEN ABLE TO COME UP WITH A SINGLE ORIGINAL AND AUTHENTIC DOCUMENT THAT WOULD PROVE BEYOND ANY DOUBT THAT COLUMBUS WAS OF ITALIAN NATIONALITY. NOR DID COLUMBUS’S SON HERNANDO THROW ANY MORE LIGHT ON THE SUBJECT IN THE HISTORIA OF HIS FATHER THAT HE LATER WROTE.

EVEN LESS CLEAR IS HERNANDO COLUMBUS’S WILL, WHERE HE SAYS, OR IS MADE TO SAY, THAT HIS FATHER WAS FROM GENOA. THE WILL WAS WRITTEN IN SEVILLE ON JULY 3, 1539, AND WAS SEALED WHEN IT WAS HANDED OVER TO PEDRO DE CASTELLANOS, A SEVILLE PUBLIC ACTUARY, AND THE RECORDS STATE TEXTUALLY THAT “…THE AFORESAID DOCUMENT IS AMENDED IN MANY PLACES AND THERE ARE NUMEROUS ANNOTATIONS IN THE MARGINS IN THE HANDWRITING OF THE ATTORNEY MARCOS FELIPE, WITH SOME AMENDMENTS WHICH HAVE BEEN CROSSED OUT AND ARE QUITE ILLEGIBLE”. THAT IS TO SAY THAT THE WILL IS COMPLETELY USELESS AS EVIDENCE SINCE WE ARE DEALING WITH A DOCUMENT THAT HAS CLEARLY BEEN TAMPERED WITH, JUST AS OCCURRED WITH THE DOCUMENTS RECORDING COLUMBUS’S ‘INSTITUCIÓN DE MAYORAZGO’ (A HERITABLE TRUST) FROM WHICH SEVERAL PAGES HAVE BEEN TORN OUT.

ON THE OTHER HAND, IN THE WILL WRITTEN BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS HIMSELF IN VALLADOLID, DATED MAY 19, 1506, THE DAY BEFORE HE DIED, THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO REFERENCE MADE TO HIS BIRTHPLACE.

WE NOW COME TO BENITO MUSSOLINI WHO, IN 1933, RECOMMENDED THE ITALIAN HISTORIANS WHO WERE DUE TO TAKE PART IN AN INTERNATIONAL HISTORY CONGRESS IN WARSAW TO COME OUT IN DEFENCE OF COLUMBUS’S ITALIAN NATIONALITY.

YET AGAIN, HERE IN SPAIN IN 1985, LUIS YAÑEZ, THE THEN SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION AND PRESIDENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF LATIN-AMERICAN CO-OPERATION, WENT TO ROME TO DISCUSS THE PREPARATIONS FOR THE CELEBRATION OF THE “FIFTH CENTENARY OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA”. IN AN INTERVIEW WITH THE “EFE” NEWS AGENCY HE STATED:

“WE ARE STRIVING TO AVOID ANY CONFRONTATION BETWEEN SPAIN AND ITALY OVER COLUMBUS’S PLACE OF BIRTH AND AS TO WHO HAS THE GREATEST RIGHT TO CELEBRATE THE OCCASION”.

HE ADDED:

“AFTER FIVE HUNDRED YEARS, WE SHOULD NOT STILL BE DEBATING THE SEX OF ANGELS, TO SEE WHO IS OF GREATER IMPORTANCE, AS IF THE “FIFTH CENTENARY” WERE A SPORTING COMPETITION”.

THE ‘ABC’ NEWSPAPER, PUBLISHED IN MADRID, RESPONDED TO THESE WORDS ON SEPTEMBER 8 1985, SAYING:

“MR YAÑEZ TRULY PUT HIS FOOT IN IT WHEN HE MADE HIS STATEMENT ABOUT COLUMBUS AND NOBODY HAS SO FAR OFFERED ANY UNQUESTIONABLE PROOF AS TO THE PLACE WHERE COLUMBUS WAS BORN…”

THE ARTICLE ENDED WITH THESE WORDS:

“IN COLUMBUS’S TIME THERE WERE, JUST AS THERE ARE NOW, PEOPLE WHO HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THEY ARE TALKING ABOUT”.

WE NOW COME TO OCTOBER 10 2003, AND TO THE PROCLAMATION 7720 SIGNED BY PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH, WHICH READS:

“WHEN CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS SET SAIL FROM SPAIN IN AUGUST 1492, HE LAUNCHED AN ERA OF DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION THAT CONTINUES TODAY. ON COLUMBUS DAY WE HONOUR THIS ITALIAN EXPLORER’S COURAGE AND VISION AND RECOGNIZE HIS FOUR JOURNEYS TO THE NEW WORLD”.

PRESIDENT BUSH ALSO HAD MORE TO SAY:

“SINCE THE DAYS OF COLUMBUS, MILLIONS OF ITALIAN IMMIGRANTS HAVE CROSSED THE OCEAN AND COME TO THE UNITED STATES. THESE ITALIAN AMERICANS AND THEIR DESCENDENTS HAVE MADE AMERICA STRONGER AND BETTER”.

ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF POLITICIZATION OCCURRED ON OCTOBER 21, 2004. THE THEN PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF MAJORCA, MARIA ANTONIA MUNAR DECLARED:

“I AM THE PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF MAJORCA AND OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THIS ISLAND, AND I THEREFORE HAVE A PATENT INTEREST IN CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS BEING FROM MAJORCA…

THEREFORE, IN MY ROLE AS HEAD OF THE COUNCIL, I FEEL SATISFIED AT HAVING SHOWN MY SUPPORT FOR PROFESSOR GABRIEL VERD, AND I INTEND TO CONTINUE TO DO SO, WITHOUT MEANING ANY DISRESPECT FOR THOSE WHO MAINTAIN THAT COLUMBUS WAS FROM GENOA OR IBIZA”.

THESE WORDS WERE SPOKEN AT THE END OF THE CONVENTION ENTITLED “THE COLUMBUS ENIGMAS” IN WHICH PROFESSORS JOSÉ ANTONIO LORENTE AND MIGUEL BOTELLA, EXPERTS IN GENETICS AND ANTHROPOLOGY FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF GRANADA, TOOK PART. THEY ARE THE SCIENTISTS WHO HAVE STUDIED THE REMAINS OF MEMBERS OF THE COLUMBUS FAMILY PRESERVED IN SEVILLE.

ON OCTOBER 21, 2004, AS WELL AS THE STATEMENTS MADE BY MRS MUNAR, THE MAJORCAN PRESS PUBLISHED THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE:

“THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME, ‘DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN GENETIC RESEARCH ON COLUMBUS’S ORIGINS’, WILL RECEIVE A GRANT OF 53,390 EUROS TO STUDY THE THEORIES CLAIMING THAT THE EXPLORER WHO DISCOVERED AMERICA WAS BORN IN MAJORCA, WHOSE STAUNCHEST SUPPORTER IS THE HISTORIAN GABRIEL VERD”.

NO COMMENT.

THE ITALIAN COLUMBUS FALLACY

ACCORDING TO INDISPUTABLE NOTARIAL RECORDS FROM GENOA, A CERTAIN CRISTOFORO COLOMBO WAS BORN SOME TIME BETWEEN AUGUST 25 AND OCTOBER 31, 1451.

ANOTHER UNQUESTIONABLE FACT IS THAT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS DIED IN VALLADOLID ON MAY 20 1506. THEREFORE, IF THAT CRISTOFORO COLOMBO WERE INDEED OUR CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, HE WOULD HAVE LIVED FOR 55 YEARS.

IN HIS MEMORIAS DEL REINADO DE LOS REYES CATÓLICOS, ANDRÉS BERNÁLDEZ, THE PRIEST OF LOS PALACIOS, A VILLAGE NEAR SEVILLE, AND A PERSONAL FRIEND OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, SAYS THAT HE DIED “AT THE AGE OF SEVENTY YEARS (70)”; ALTHOUGH IN OTHER PARTS OF THE MANUSCRIPT IT ACTUALLY SAYS ‘SIXTY YEARS (60)’.

WE ALSO HAVE THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL REPORTON THE 150 GRAMS OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S REMAINS THAT ARE PRESERVED IN SEVILLE CATHEDRAL PUBLISHED BY DR MIGUEL BOTELLA, THE DIRECTOR OF THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY LABORATORY AT GRANADAUNIVERSITY. THE REPORT INDICATES THAT COLUMBUS WAS BETWEEN 50 AND 70 YEARS OLD WHEN HE DIED, ‘I WOULD EVEN GO AS FAR AS TO SAY THAT HE WAS NEARER 60 THAN 50’.

DR CHARLES W. GOFF, WHO EXAMINED THE BONES PRESERVED IN SANTO DOMINGO, IN MAY 1959 CONCLUDED THAT COLUMBUS WAS 60 YEARS OLD AT THE TIME OF HIS DEATH.

DR FERNANDO LUNA CALDERÓN, THE LATE DOMINICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, WHO STUDIED THE ADMIRAL’S REMAINS ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS, ALSO CONCLUDED THAT THEY CORRESPOND TO THOSE OF A 60-YEAR OLD MAN.

THEREFORE THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL REPORTS MAKE IT QUITE CLEAR THAT CRISTOFORO COLOMBO COULD NOT BE CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS BECAUSE COLUMBUS WAS OLDER THAN THE GENOESE COLOMBO. INDEED, ANTONIO RUMEU DE ARMAS AND JUAN PÉREZ DE TUDELA, HISTORIANS AND MEMBERS OF THE ACADEMY OF HISTORY DECLARED TO ME IN PERSON: ‘COLOMBO COULD NOT POSSIBLY HAVE BEEN COLUMBUS BECAUSE COLUMBUS WAS OLDER’

Atheneum of Madrid, October 4, 2008. From left to right: Admiral Cristóbal Colón XX with Nito Verdera, author of the thesis “Christopher Columbus from Ibiza”. (Foto: Cecilia Galbis)

DIEGO COLUMBUS, THE NAVIGATOR’S BROTHER

WE KNOW THAT DIEGO COLUMBUS, THE FIRST ADMIRAL’S BROTHER, DIED IN SEVILLE ON FEBRUARY 21 1515. PLEASE MAKE A NOTE OF THE DATE: 1515.

IT IS OFTEN THE CASE THAT HISTORY AND REALITY TRAVEL IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION AND IT SO HAPPENS THAT GIACOMO COLOMBO, THE PERSON THEY WOULD HAVE US BELIEVE WAS DIEGO COLUMBUS, THE ADMIRAL’S BROTHER, CAN ALSO BE RULED OUT BY REASON OF AGE DIFFERENCE.

ACCORDING TO NOTARIAL DOCUMENTS FOUND IN SAVONA, GIACOMO COLOMBO WENT TO WORK AS AN APPRENTICE IN THE TEXTILE FACTORY OF A CERTAIN LUCHINO CADDERMATORI ON SEPTEMBER 10 1484, STATING THAT HE WAS 16 YEARS OLD.

SO, IF GIACOMO WERE I6 YEARS OLD IN 1484, THIS WOULD MEAN THAT HE WAS BORN IN 1468, AND IF HE HAD BEEN JACOB COLUMBUS WHO DIED IN 1515, HE WOULD HAVE DIED AT THE AGE OF 47…

AND HOW OLD WAS DIEGO COLUMBUS WHEN HE DIED? WELL, ACCORDING TO THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL REPORT WRITTEN BY DR MIGUEL BOTELLA, HE DIED AT THE AGE OF 60.

THEREFORE, WHATEVER THE ITALIAN HISTORIANS AND THE SPANISH ‘GENOVISTS’ MIGHT SAY, WE ARE OBVIOUSLY TALKING ABOUT TWO TOTALLY DIFFERENT PEOPLE. DIEGO COLUMBUS ALONE DEMOLISHES THE THEORY OF COLUMBUS’S ITALIAN ORIGINS.

 BARTHOLOMEW COLUMBUS

THEY WOULD HAVE US BELIEVE THAT THIS BROTHER WAS CALLED BARTOLOMEO COLOMBO. HOWEVER, THE CASE IS THAT, IN ITALY, THEY HAVE BEEN TOTALLY UNABLE TO FIND A SINGLE DOCUMENT REFERRING TO EITHER HIS BIRTH OR DEATH.

ON THE OTHER HAND, IN THE PLEITOS COLOMBINOS, PROBANZAS 1512 –1515 THERE IS A REFERENCE TO BARTOLOME COLUMBUS, THE ADMIRAL’S OTHER BROTHER, WHICH READS AS FOLLOWS:

“ASKING ABOUT GENERAL MATTERS, HE SAID THAT HE MIGHT BE 50 YEARS OLD AND HE IS THE UNCLE OF THE AFORESAID ADMIRAL” (HE WAS REFERRING TO DIEGO COLUMBUS, THE EXPLORER’S ELDEST SON).

SO BARTHOLOMEW COLUMBUS WAS BORN IN 1462 AND DIED IN SANTO DOMINGO IN 1514, WHICH WOULD MEAN THAT HE LIVED FOR ABOUT 52 OR 53 YEARS. THEREFORE BARTHOLOMEW AND NOT JACOB MUST HAVE BEEN THE YOUNGEST OF THE THREE BROTHERS REFERRED TO IN THE SPANISH ARCHIVES.

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S NATIVE LANGUAGE

WE HAVE SEEN HOW ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES CONCLUDE THAT THE COLOMBOS AND THE COLUMBUS WERE TOTALLY DIFFERENT PEOPLE, BUT THERE IS YET ANOTHER INDISPUTABLE SCIENTIFIC PROOF AGAINST THE ITALIAN THEORY: CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S NATIVE LANGUAGE. .

RAMÓN MENÉNDEZ PIDAL WROTE THAT “SPANISH WAS NOT HIS FIRST LANGUAGE (COLUMBUS’S), BUT A LANGUAGE HE HAD LEARNT”.

“THE DIALECTICISMS FROM THE WESTERN IBERIAN PENINSULA EVIDENT IN COLUMBUS’S SPEECH ARE NOT GALICIAN, BUT DECIDEDLY PORTUGUESE, THOUGH WE ALSO SEE HOW PORTUGUESE WAS NOT HIS NATIVE LANGUAGE EITHER”.

“AS FOR ITALIAN, COLUMBUS NEVER USES IT IN ANY OF HIS NUMEROUS WRITINGS AND DOCUMENTS, AND HE ALWAYS WRITES TO HIS ITALIAN FRIENDS IN SPANISH”. THESE ARE MENÉNDEZ PIDAL’S CONCLUSIONS.

SO COLUMBUS DID NOT KNOW HOW TO WRITE IN TUSCAN, THE BASIS OF MODERN ITALIAN, AND WE SHOULD ALSO REMEMBER THAT THE GENOVESE DIALECTALMOST NEVER APPEARED IN WRITING, ALTHOUGH HE DID ATTEMPT TO WRITE TWO NOTES IN ITALIAN: IN THE LIBRO DE LAS PROFECIAS AND HIS HISTORIA DE PLINIO. HOWEVER, HIS ITALIAN IS SO DREADFUL THAT SALVADOR DE MADARIAGA COMMENTED: “HE COULD NOT HAVE BEEN IN FULL POSSESSION OF HIS MIND AT THE TIME”.

WE HAVE FURTHER IMPORTANT TESTIMONY ON THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY COLUMBUS: THAT OF A MAN WHO ACTUALLY HAD ALL THESE DOCUMENTS IN HIS POSSESSION AND WHO STUDIED THEM IN GREAT DETAIL; I AM REFERRING TO FRAY BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS, THE DOMINICAN WHO WROTE THE HISTORIA DE LAS INDIAS, WHICH INCLUDES AN EXTRACT FROM THE NAVIGATIONAL LOG FROM COLUMBUS’S FIRST VOYAGE. LAS CASAS SAYS:

“ALL THESE ARE HIS FORMAL WORDS, SOME OF WHICH ARE NOT PERFECT CASTILIAN ROMANCE, AS IF THIS WERE NOT THE ADMIRAL’S NATIVE LANGUAGE”.

“HE SEEMS TO HAVE HAD A DIFFERENT FIRST LANGUAGE, SINCE HE DOES NOT APPEAR TO COMPLETELY GRASP THE MEANING OF THE WORDS IN THE CASTILIAN LANGUAGE”.

“ALL THESE ARE THE ADMIRAL’S WORDS IN HIS HUMBLE STYLE, LACKING PROPRIETY IN HIS CHOICE OF WORDS, AS ONE WHO HAD NOT BEEN BORN IN CASTILE”.

Club Diario de Ibiza, September 16, 2007. Mariano J. Ferragut, Captain of Spanish Navy (right), presented Nito Verdera (left). (Foto: (Josep M. Subirà)

  THE PORTUGUESE COLUMBUS FALLACY

I DO NOT INTEND TO WASTE MUCH TIME ON THIS THEORY.

PROFESSOR MICHEL FERREIRA, THE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGETOWN IN WASHINGTON SENT ME A ‘BOLETIM DE FILOLOGIA’ PUBLISHED BY THE LISBON CENTRE OF PHILOLOGICAL STUDIES (1950), A WORK WRITTEN BY RODRIGO SA NOGUEIRA ON PORTUGUESISMOS EM CRISTOVAO COLOMBO.

APPARENTLY, OR AT LEAST TO THE BEST OF MY KNOWLEDGE, THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THAT A PORTUGUESE PHILOLOGIST HAS COMMENTED ON CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S WRITTEN LANGUAGE.

PROFESSOR SA NOGUEIRA REACHED THE FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS:

1) ‘THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT THE FORMS OF THE PERSONAL INFINITIVE IN HIS WRITINGS REPRESENT AN IMPORTANT AND DECISIVE PROOF THAT COLUMBUS DID NOT USE THE PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE AS WOULD A NATIVE SPEAKER’.

2) RODRIGO DE SA NOGUEIRA COMES OUT IN SUPPORT OF THE WORK OF SALVADOR DE MADARIAGA AND SAYS: ‘IN HIS WELL WRITTEN AND WELL DOCUMENTED BOOK VIDA DEL MUY MAGNÍFICO SEÑOR DON CRISTÓBAL COLÓN, AND IN MY OPINION, WORTHY OF CONSIDERATION…’.

AND SA NOGUEIRA GOES ON TO SAY: ‘THE ONLY DOUBT I HAVE IS RAISED BY THE THEORY OF THE CATALAN ORIGINS OF THE COLUMBUS FAMILY AFTER READING THE WORK OF LUIS ULLOA CISNEROS CHRISTOPHE COLOMB, CATALÁN, PARIS 1927.

SO, AFTER STUDYING BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS, RAMÓN MENÉNDEZ PIDAL AND RODRIGO DE SA NOGUEIRA, WE CAN REACH AN IMPORTANT CONCLUSION:

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S NATIVE LANGUAGE WAS NOT CASTILIAN, NOR ITALIAN, NOR PORTUGUESE, NOR YET GALICIAN, SO HE MUST THEREFORE HAVE HAD SOME OTHER NATIONALITY.

THE MAJORCAN COLUMBUS FALLACY

THERE IS A THEORY GOING AROUND ACCORDING TO WHICH CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS WAS THE ILLEGITIMATE SON OF THE PRINCE OF VIANA, HALF-BROTHER ON HIS FATHER’S SIDE OF KING FERDINAND THE CATHOLIC, AND A MAJORCAN GIRL FROM FELANITX CALLED MARGALIDA COLOM. THIS IS A THEORY WHICH THROUGH CERTAIN VESTED INTERESTS APPEARS FROM TIME TO TIME IN THE MEDIA.

WHAT IS CERTAIN IS THAT THE PRINCE OF VIANA ARRIVED IN PALMA DE MAJORCA FROM SICILY ON AUGUST 20 1459.

IT HAS BEEN SAID REPEATEDLY THAT CHARLES, THE PRINCE OF VIANA, HAD WRITTEN A LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR OF MAJORCA THANKING HIM FOR EVERYTHING HE HAD DONE FOR MARGARITA, ‘WHO IS WITH CHILD’.

HOWEVER, RECENT MODERN PALAEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT THE PRINCE OF VIANA WROTE TO THE GOVERNOR OF SICILY IN PALERMO AND NOT TO THE GOVERNOR OF MAJORCA. WHAT IS MORE, A LETTER HAS BEEN FOUND IN THE CROWN OF ARAGON ARCHIVES IN BARCELONA ADDRESSED TO HIS MAN OF CONFIDENCE IN PALERMO. I AM REFERRING TO TROYANO ABATE LA VIESCA, AND IN THIS LETTER HE GIVES HIM THE FOLLOWING ORDERS: “WE WISH FOR MARGARITA PANORMITANA (REFERRING TO SOMEONE FROM PANORMITA, THE OLD NAME FOR THE CITY OF PALERMO), NIECE OF FRAY LUIGI DE LUCHETI, TO RECEIVE AN OVERSKIRT (GONELLA)…”

IN THOSE TIMES, A ‘GONELLA’ (A FULL OVERSKIRT) WAS A PRESENT THAT KINGS AND NOBLES GAVE TO THEIR FEMALE SERVANTS WHEN THEY BECAME PREGNANT…

IN CONCLUSION

SINCE THE PRINCE OF VIANA REACHED MAJORCA ON AUGUST 20 1459, IF HE HAD HAD A SON, THIS SON WOULD HAVE BEEN BORN IN 1460. AS CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS DIED AT THE AGE OF 60 AT THE VERY LEAST, THE MAJORCAN CANDIDATE IS IMPOSSIBLE, BECAUSE HE WOULD ONLY HAVE BEEN 46 IN 1506 WHEN CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IS KNOWN TO HAVE DIED.

There was a good turnout inthe presentation of Nito Verdera’s last book Cristóbal Colón. El Libro de las Falacias y Relación de Cuatro Verdades in Club Diario de Ibiza. (Foto: J. M. Subirà)

THE CATALAN COLUMBUS THEORY

THE FIRST REFERENCE MADE TO CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S CATALAN ORIGINS WAS THAT OF THE HISTORIAN NARCÍS FELIU DE LA PEÑA FARELL EN HIS WORK ENTITLED LOS ANALES DE CATALUÑA (1709) WHICH CONSISTED OF THREE VOLUMES WRITTEN IN CASTILIAN. IT SAYS THAT COLUMBUS WENT TO BARCELONA IN 1493 “…TO INFORM THE KING THAT THEY (THE INDIES) HAD BEEN DISCOVERED BY A CATALAN SAILOR. IN RETURN HE WAS GIVEN SIX INDIANS…”

ANOTHER HISTORIAN, PERE SERRA I POSTIUS (BARCELONA 1671-1748) SAYS IN HIS WORK, ALSO WRITTEN IN CASTILIAN: “ON THIS DAY (MAY 20) IN THE YEAR 1506 CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS LEFT THIS MORTAL WORLD FOR THAT OF ETERNAL LIFE. HE WON FOR SPAIN A GREAT TREASURE (HE MEANS THE NEW WORLD). THE CASTILIANS CALL HIM CRISTÓBAL COLÓN, SINCE THEY WRITE “N” FOR “M”, BUT HIS NAME WAS COLOM AND HE WAS FROM CATALONIA…”

SALVADOR DE MADARIAGA HIGHLIGHTS THIS IMPORTANT FACT ABOUT TWO HISTORIANS LIVING AT THE SAME TIME AS COLUMBUS: “GONZALO FERNÁNDEZ DE OVIEDO, SPANISH, AND JOAO DO BARROS, PORTUGUESE, BOTH INVARIABLY SPELL HIS NAME AS COLOM, WHICH WOULD BE TOTALLY INEXPLICABLE IN HISTORIANS WHO WERE NOT CATALAN, UNLESS OF COURSE THERE EXISTED POWERFUL REASONS FOR THEM TO SPELL IT IN THIS WAY, ESPECIALLY IN THE CASE OF OVIEDO, WHO HAD EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE COURT OF THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS AND OF THE EARLY YEARS OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA”. OVIEDO MET COLUMBUS DURING THE SIEGE OF GRANADA AND WAS A PAGE AT THE COURT OF THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS AT THE SAME TIME AS DIEGO COLUMBUS, THE ADMIRAL’S ELDEST SON.

LUIS ULLOA CISNEROS

ULLOA WAS BORN IN PERU IN 1869 AND DIED IN BARCELONA IN 1936. HE WAS A CIVIL ENGINEER AND THE DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF PERU IN LIMA AND HE CAME TO SPAIN TO INVESTIGATE THE ALLEGED GALICIAN COLUMBUS ONLY TO FIND HIMSELF FACE TO FACE WITH THE CATALAN COLUMBUS.

THREE OF HIS WORKS WERE PUBLISHED IN 1927: CHRISTOPHE COLOMB, CATALAN; CRISTÒFOR COLOM FOU CÁTALA – LA VERITABLE GENÉSI DEL DESCOBRIMENT; NOVES PROVES DE LA CATALANITAT DE COLOM – LES GRANS FALSETATS DE LA TESI GENOVESA.

ANOTHER WELL DOCUMENTED WORK WAS THE PREDESCUBRIMIENTO HISPANO-CATALÁN EN 1477. CHRISTOFERENS COLOM, FERNANDO EL CATÓLICO Y LA CATALUÑA ESPAÑOLA, PARIS, 1928.

LUIS ULLOA STUDIED IN GREAT DEPTH ALL THE ENIGMAS SURROUNDING THE DISCOVERER OF AMERICA AND HAS HAD NUMEROUS FOLLOWERS.

WE TRULY OWE ULLOA A GREAT DEBT OF GRATITUDE SINCE HE RECOMMENDED THAT THE ARCHIVES OF ALL THE TERRITORIES WHICH HAD ONCE FORMED PART OF THE CROWN OF ARAGON BE RESTUDIED TOGETHER WITH THOSE OF THE MANOR HOUSES IN THE AREA AND ALSO DEMANDED A PHILOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLUMBUS’S WRITINGS, NOT EXCLUDING THE DIFFERENT CATALAN DIALECTS.

HE SAID AS FOLLOWS: “I SHOULD MAKE IT CLEAR THAT BY CATALONIA I NATURALLY DO NOT MEAN THE PRESENT-DAY PROVINCE OF THAT NAME BUT THE ETHNOGRAPHIC, LINGUISTIC AND HISTORICAL CATALONIA, THAT IS TO SAY, APART FROM OUR MODERN-DAY CATALONIA, ALL THE CATALAN-SPEAKING AREAS SUCH AS VALENCIA, THE BALEARIC ISLANDS, PART OF SARDINIA, EL ROSELLÓN AND LA CERDEÑA.

LUIS ULLOA’S GREAT MISTAKE

THE PERUVIAN HISTORIAN’S PROBLEM AROSE FROM THE FACT THAT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS SOMETIMES SIGNED HIS LETTERS WITH THE NAME OF XRISTO FERENS, BEARER OF CHRIST, WHICH ULLOA TOOK TO REFER TO JOHN THE BAPTIST, AND SO HE JUMPED TO THE CONCLUSION THAT COLUMBUS’S FIRST NAME WAS JOAN (JOHN).

THE SECOND PART IS EVEN MORE BIZARRE. IT SO HAPPENED THAT IN 1477 COLUMBUS TOOK PART IN PORTUGUESE-DANISH VOYAGE TO ICELAND, GREENLAND AND TERRANOVA. A DANISH PILOT OF THE NAME OF JON SKOLP HAD ALSO SIGNED UP FOR THE EXPEDITION. THE LATINISED FORM OF HIS NAME WAS JOANES SCOLVUS, AND HE WAS KNOWN AS SCOLVO, SCOLNUS OR SCOLUM, WHICH ULLOA TRANSFORMED INTO COLOM.

BECAUSE OF THIS MISTAKE, FROM 1927 ONWARDS MANY INVESTIGATORS HAVE SEARCHED FOR A CERTAIN JOAN COLOM AND HAVE FOLLOWED A FALSE TRAIL, AS WE SHALL SEE FURTHER ON.

HOWEVER, NOT ALL ULLOA’S ADEPTS HAVE FOLLOWED HIS LEAD ON THIS OCCASION, BUT HAVE CONCENTRATED THEIR EFFORTS ON LOCATING THE COLUMBUS FAMILY IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF CATALONIA, AND MORE SPECIFICALLY IN BARCELONA.

FOR MANY YEARS IT HAS BEEN SAID AGAIN AND AGAIN THAT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS WAS A MEMBER OF THE ALL-POWERFUL COLOM FAMILY IN BARCELONA, IDENTIFYING HIM AS ONE JOAN COLOM BERTRAN.

THIS CONTINUED UNTIL 2006 WHEN A YOUNG HISTORIAN FROM LLEIDA, ANTONI SOLER PARELLADA, CAME ACROSS AN IMPORTANT DOCUMENT IN VILAFRANCA DEL PENEDÉS, REGISTERED BEFORE A PUBLIC NOTARY ON AUGUST 2 1484, IN WHICH A YOUTH BY THE NAME OF JAUME COLOM PROCLAIMED HIMSELF TO BE THE HEIR OF THE LATE JOAN COLOM BERTRAN.

SO THERE YOU HAVE IT. 80 YEARS HAVE HAD TO GO BY – AND WHAT A WASTE OF TIME THIS HAS BEEN! – TO UNDO THE GREAT MISTAKE MADE BY LUIS ULLOA IN 1927, WHEN HE IDENTIFIED CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS AS A CERTAIN NON-EXISTENT JOAN COLOM.

Atheneum of Barcelona, December 18, 2008. Dr. Bernat Castany i Magraner (right) presented Nito Verdera (left). (Foto: J. M. Subirà)

THE TARROJA DE SAGARRA COLUMBUS FALLACY

OTHER RESEARCHERS, THOUGH ON THIS OCCASION NOT VERY MANY, THOUGHT THAT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS WAS A MEMBER OF THE COLOM FAMILY OF TARROJA DE SAGARRA (LERIDA). HOWEVER, IN 1991, DR JOSEP MARIA LLOBET PORTILLA DEMONSTRATED THAT THESE COLOMS WERE ACTUALLY IRONSMITHS; DOUBTLESS A MOST WORTHY PROFESSION, BUT ONE THAT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THAT OF THE DISCOVERER OF AMERICA.

THE TRUTH ABOUT THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

THE LANGUAGE THAT COLUMBUS USED TO WRITE AS HIS HABITUAL LANGUAGE OF COMMUNICATION WAS SPANISH, THOUGH WE SHOULD BEAR IN MIND THAT IT WAS AN ACQUIRED LANGUAGE, AS MENÉNDEZ PIDAL HAS POINTED OUT. ALL THE LINGUISTIC STUDIES SO FAR CARRIED OUT ON HIS WRITINGS REVEAL AN ASTONISHING NUMBER OF CATALAN WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS, CATALANISMS AND CATALAN DIALECT WORDS. THAT IS TO SAY THAT COLUMBUS’S FIRST LANGUAGE WAS OBVIOUSLY CATALAN AND HE MIXED IT WITH SPANISH TO WRITE AND TO EXPRESS HIS THOUGHTS.

THE STRANGEST THING IS THAT HE USED WORDS WHICH ARE STILL USED IN IBIZA AND NOT IN CATALONIA OR MAJORCA, AS I BELIEVE I SHOWED IN CRISTÓBAL COLÓN CATALANOPARLANTE. FOR EXAMPLE, THE WORD BARLOVENTO (WINDWARD) (WHICH COLUMBUS INTRODUCED INTO THE SPANISH LANGUAGE IN 1492) CAN ONLY BE EXPLAINED THROUGH THE CATALAN SPOKEN IN IBIZA. THE CATALAN EXPRESSION PER-LO-VENT (THE SIDE OF THE SHIP THE WIND IS BLOWING FROM) HAS BEEN CHANGED TO BARLAVENTO, DUE TO A LINGUISTIC PHENOMENON KNOWN AS THE IBIZAN ARABISED. ON MY ISLAND P AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORD GETS CHANGED TO B. FOR EXAMPLE BASTANAGA AND BISTAXO (CARROT AND PISTACHIO IN ENGLISH) ARE CALLED PASTANAGA AND PISTAXO IN MAJORCA AND CATALONIA. THERE ARE ALSO OTHER EXAMPLES SUCH AS BESTORRE (A SMALLTOWER) AND BERNAT (A SCREW) INSTEAD OF PASTORRE AND PERNAT IN CATALAN.

THE RESULTS OF THIS RESEARCH ALL GO TO SHOW THAT COLUMBUS WAS BILINGUAL, JUST AS ALL THOSE LIVING IN THE TERRITORIES WHICH ONCE MADE UP THE CROWN OF ARAGON STILL ARE TODAY.

IT IS QUITE CLEAR TO ME THAT ALL THE COLUMBIAN HISTORIANS WHO TRY TO EXPLAIN COLUMBUS’S LANGUAGE AS DERIVING FROM SOME LINGUA FRANCA ARE VERY MUCH MISTAKEN.

INDEED, BACK IN 1992, PROFESSOR IRIZARRY, THE AUTHOR OF THE PROLOGUE OF THIS BOOK, WROTE AN ARTICLE ENTITLED CRISTÓBAL COLÓN, ESCRITOR WHICH WAS PUBLISHED IN THE HISPANIA MAGAZINE. HER WORK WAS THE FRUIT OF A COMPUTER STUDY COMPARING THE WRITINGS OF BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS WITH THOSE OF COLUMBUS IN THE LOG OF HIS FIRST VOYAGE. SHE REACHED THE FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS:

I) HE SUCCESSFULLY USED HIS PROSE IN VARIOUS WAYS; TO PERSUADE, NARRATE, INFORM AND DESCRIBE.

II) HE WAS ABLE TO CONVEY GREAT CALM AND EXTREME AGITATION, AND TO MANAGE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION SKILFULLY.

III) COLUMBUS WAS EXTREMELY PROUD OF HIS WRITINGS AND REFERRED BACK TO WHAT HE HAD WRITTEN PREVIOUSLY WHENEVER HE COULD.

IV) HISTORIANS AND BIOGRAPHERS CAN INTERPRET COLUMBUS THE EXPLORER IN ANY WAY THEY SEE FIT, BUT THESE TEXTS REMAIN TO TESTIFY TO THE EXISTENCE OF THE SKILFUL AND ELOQUENT WRITER THAT COLUMBUS ALSO WAS.

COLUMBUS’S WRITING

BY WAY OF ADDITIONAL PROOF, WE SHOULD CONSIDER THE RESEARCH CARRIED OUT BY PROFESSOR DAVID GARRIDO VALLS, AN EXPERT ON MEDIAEVAL HISTORY AND PALAEOGRAPHY FROM ALICANTE (SPAIN), WHO TOOK PART IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONONCOLUMBUS’S MOTHER TONGUE WHICH WAS HELD IN IBIZA IN MAY 2006. BASED ON HIS STUDIES, WE CAN AFFIRM THAT COLUMBUS’S HANDWRITING IS GOTHIC SCRIPT SUCH AS THAT USED IN THE CROWN OF ARAGON, WITH SOME INFLUENCES FROM THE SOUTH OF FRANCE. THIS WOULD HAVE A LOGICAL EXPLANATION SINCE THE COLUMBUS BROTHERS LIVED IN MARSEILLES UNDER THE PROTECTION OF KING RENÉ OF ANJOU.

DAVID GARRIDO ALSO COMPARED COLUMBUS’S WRITINGS WITH ITALIAN AND SPANISH DOCUMENTS WRITTEN AROUND THE SAME DATE, SOMETHING WHICH APPARENTLY HAD NEVER BEEN DONE BEFORE. THESE STUDIES SHOW THAT THE WRITING IN THESE DOCUMENTS HAS NOTHING IN COMMON WITH THAT OF COLUMBUS. THESE ARE VERY RECENT STUDIES AND THE CONCLUSIONS COULD NOT BE CLEARER.

COLUMBUS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. SOME IMPORTANT CLARIFICATIONS SHOULD BE MADE.

COLUMBUS’S MOTHER TONGUE WAS CATALAN, A LANGUAGE WHICH WAS SPOKEN IN THE OLD PRINCIPALITY OF CATALONIA (OUR MODERN-DAY CATALONIA); IN A LONG STRIP OF LAND WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF ARAGON, SITUATED ON THE WESTERN SIDE OF THE PRINCIPALITY, VARYING IN WIDTH BETWEEN 15 AND 30 KILOMETRES; IN MOST OF THE OLD KINGDOM OF VALENCIA, NOW MADE UP OF VALENCIA, ALICANTE AND CASTELLON DE LA PLANA; THE BALEARIC ISLANDS OF MAJORCA AND MINORCA AND THE PITYUSES OR PINE ISLANDS OF IBIZA AND FORMENTERA; THE TINY REPUBLIC OF ANDORRA IN THE PYRENEES; IN EL ROSELLON AND LA CERDEÑA, NOW PART OF FRANCE; AND THE TOWN OF ALGUER (SARDINIA) WHICH WAS SETTLED BY CATALANS AROUND THE MIDDLE OF THE 14TH CENTURY.

THE LANDS WHERE CATALAN IS SPOKEN EXTEND OVER SOME 70,000 SQUARE KILOMETRES; HAVE OVER 12 MILLION INHABITANTS, 60% OF WHOM SPEAK THE LANGUAGE, THAT IS TO SAY ABOUT 7 MILLION PEOPLE.

HOWEVER, IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND HISTORY, WE SHOULD BE CAREFUL NOT TO CONFUSE THE RESIDENTS OF CATALONIA, WHO WE CALL CATALANS, WITH THE INHABITANTS OF ANDORRA, VALENCIA, MAJORCA, MINORCA, IBIZA AND FORMENTERA.

I WOULD ONCE AGAIN LIKE TO EMPHASIZE THAT COLUMBUS’S FIRST LANGUAGE WAS CATALAN, THAT HE USED NUMEROUS PLACE NAMES FROM IBIZA AND FORMENTERA TO NAME THE PLACES HE DISCOVERED DURING HIS FOUR VOYAGES AND THAT IN HIS WRITINGS HE ALSO USED SOME WORDS ONLY USED IN THE CATALAN DIALECT SPOKEN IN IBIZA.

FINALLY, AS THINGS STAND TODAY, 516 YEARS AFTER THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA, WE SHOULD INSIST ON THE FACT THAT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IS A SPANISH MARINER BORN ON THE ISLAND OF IBIZA.

COLUMBUS AND JUDAISM

FROM THE MOMENT COLUMBUS ARRIVED IN SPAIN FROM PORTUGAL, UNTIL HE SIGNED THE SANTA FE CAPITULATIONS WITH THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS, THERE IS AN UNDISPUTABLE FACT THAT WE SHOULD BEAR VERY MUCH IN MIND; DURING THE WHOLE OF THIS TIME HE WAS SURROUNDED BY FRIENDS AND PROTECTORS WHO WERE EITHER JEWISH OR CONVERTED JEWS, SUCH AS DUKE LUIS DE LA CERDA; PEDRO GONZÁLEZ DE MENDOZA, ARCHBISHOP OF TOLEDO; ANDRÉS CABRERA, MARQUES DE MOYA; JUAN CABRERO, JUAN DE COLOMA, SECRETARY OF STATE FOR ARAGON; JUAN DE LA CABALLERÍA AND IN PARTICULAR LUIS SANTÁNGEL, FINANCE MINISTER IN THE COURT OF THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS, WHO DONATED ONE MILLION ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY THOUSAND MARAVEDIS (1,140,000); AND GABRIEL SÁNCHEZ, THE ROYAL TREASURER OF ARAGON, WHO MADE COLUMBUS A PERSONAL LOAN OF HALF A MILLION MARAVEDIS. THE CROWN DID NOT INVEST A SINGLE MARAVEDI, AND THE QUEEN DID CERTAINLY NOT PAWN HER JEWELS, SINCE THAT HAD ALREADY BEEN DONE DURING THE WAR OF BAZA. OTHER JEWISH FRIENDS OF COLUMBUS WERE ISAAC ABRABANEL, ABRAHAM SENIOR AND THE ASTRONOMER ABRAHAM ZACUTO.

COLUMBUS WROTE ELEVEN LETTERS TO HIS SON DIEGO, IN WHICH IN THE TOP LEFT-HAND CORNER WE CAN SEE TWO ENTWINED LETTERS FROM THE HEBREW ALPHABET; BET AND HE, WRITTEN FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, AS IN SEMITIC SCRIPT, WHICH ARE AN ABBREVIATION FOR BARUCH HASCHEM, MEANING GOD BE PRAISED.

WE HAVE OTHER EVIDENCE TO PROVE THAT COLUMBUS WAS A CONVERTED JEW, ALL OF WHICH YOU WILL FIND IN MY BOOK. HOWEVER, I WOULD LIKE TO MENTION ONE TRULY EXTRAORDINARY PIECE OF EVIDENCE WHICH I HAVE COME ACROSS ONLY VERY RECENTLY. IT IS A STUDY CARRIED OUT BY PROFESSOR ESTELLE IRIZARRY ON COLUMBUS’S LIBRODE LAS PROFECÍAS. THIS IS A BOOK THAT IS EXTREMELY RELIGIOUS IN NATURE, IN WHICH HE SHOWS HIMSELF TO POSSESS AN INCREDIBLE AMOUNT OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE BIBLE, THE TORAH (PENTATEUCH) AND THE PROPHETS, AND FROM WHICH SEVERAL PAGES HAVE BEEN TORN OUT, POSSIBLY BECAUSE THEY WERE EXCESSIVELY COMPROMISING.

IN PROFESSOR IRIZARRY’S STUDY, WHICH SHE PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION HELD IN IBIZA IN APRIL 2006 AND ENTITLED LOS POEMAS DE COLÓN: VÍNCULOS CON SU ORIGEN Y RELIGIÓN SHE TELLS US THAT WHEN HIS SON WAS ABOUT TO CELEBRATE HIS THIRTEENTH BIRTHDAY, COLUMBUS MADE HIM COPY THE HOLY PASSAGES SAYING THAT “COPYING IS A WAY OF STUDYING”.

IT SO HAPPENS THAT AT THE AGE OF THIRTEEN A JEWISH BOY PREPARES TO BE ACCEPTED AS A MAN IN THE PACT BETWEEN GOD AND THE JEWISH PEOPLE. PROFESSOR IRIZARRY WRITES: “WE HAVE HERE ANOTHER CLEAR CASE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S SECRET JUDAISM”.

ACCORDING TO PROFESSOR IRIZARRY, THE LIBRO DE LAS PROFECÍAS HAS A HIDDEN MEANING. IT IS WRITTEN IN LATIN WITH THE APPARENT AIM OF HONOURING GOD AND THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS, BUT IT IS IN FACT REALLY AN HEBREW EDUCATIONAL TEXT FOR HIS SON HERNANDO.

ESTELLE IRIZARRY POINTS OUT THAT “NOBODY HAS NOTICED THAT THIS BOOK HOLDS A HIDDEN MEANING, FROM WHICH IS DERIVED THE PRESENT-DAY READING OF A HAFTORAH IN THE SYNAGOGUE AFTER THE READING OF THE TORAH. THE HAFTORAH IS A REQUIRED READING FROM THE BOOK OF PROPHETS IN THE BIBLE, RELATED IN SUBJECT MATTER TO THE PASSAGE READ FROM THE TORAH THAT WEEK. AFTER 70AD, THE HAFTAROT WERE USED SUBVERSIVELY INSTEAD OF THE TORAH, WHEN IT WAS FORBIDDEN TO READ THE CORRESPONDING PASSAGE IN THE TORAH AND TO COMPLY WITH THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE SABBATH”.

TORAH: THIS IS THE PENTATEUCH, THE HOLY BOOK PAR EXCELLENCE AMONG THE HOLY SCRIPTURES, COMPRISING OF GENESIS, EXODUS, LEVITICUS, NUMBERS AND DEUTERONOMY.

HAFTORAH: THIS MEANS ‘CONCLUSION’ OR ‘FINAL READING’. THESE ARE PARTS OF THE BOOKS OF THE PROPHETS THAT HOLD A SUBTLE CONNECTION TO THE PART OF THE TORAH READ THAT SABBATH. THE HAFTORAH RELATES TO THE PASSAGES READ FROM THE TORAH AND IS READ AFTERWARDS (OR DURING THE TIMES WHEN THE READING OF THE TORAH WAS FORBIDDEN, IN ITS PLACE).

HAFTORAT: THIS IS THE PLURAL OF HAFTORA

***FURTHER PROOF OF JUDAISM

A) 1506 WILL: HALF A POUND OF SILVER TO A JEW WHO LIVED IN THE JEWISH QUARTER OF LISBON… HALF A SHEKEL…

B) TRINITÉ AND THE MONTE TRINITÉ IN THE SOUTH OF CORSICA

C) COLUMBUS’S MARGINAL NOTES B861 IN HISTORIA RERUM UBIQUE GESTARUM BY ENEAS SILVIO PICCOLOMONI: “IN THE MORNING (HE USES THE CATALAN WORD MATINADA) OF THURSDAY PSALM 6…” THIS ACTUALLY CORRESPONDS TO 72-73 OF THE VULGATE: LAMENTATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE.

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S DNA

DR JOSÉ ANTONIO LORENTE, THE SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF THE STUDIES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, ANALYSED THE REMAINS OF HERNANDO COLUMBUS, THE NATURAL SON BORN IN CORDOBA OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS AND BEATRIZ HENRÍQUEZ DE ARANA, AND OBTAINED HIS “Y” CHROMOSOME, WHICH IS PASSED DOWN FROM FATHER TO SON, JUST LIKE THE FAMILY NAME. THIS MEANS THAT WE HAVE, OR RATHER DR LORENTE HAS, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S DNA.

THIS DNA HAS BEEN COMPARED WITH 255 SAMPLES TAKEN FROM MEN OF THE NAME OF COLOM (COLUMBUS) LIVING IN PRESENT-DAY CATALONIA, THE AUTONOMIC COMMUNITY OF VALENCIA AND THE BALEARICS. HOWEVER, AS YET NO MATCH HAS BEEN FOUND.

THE SAME RESULT HAS OCCURRED WITH ANOTHER 113 SAMPLES TAKEN FROM COLOMBOS IN LIGURIA, LOMBARDY AND PIEDMONT.

NEITHER HAVE THERE BEEN ANY MATCHES WITH ANOTHER 100 SAMPLES TAKEN FROM A REFERENCE POPULATION IN CATALONIA. THE RESULTS OF ALL THESE TESTS SHOW THAT COLUMBUS’S DNA IS NOT A MATCH TO ANY OF THESE PEOPLE; A TOTAL OF 447.

LORENTE MADE PUBLIC THESE FINDINGS IN A REPORT PUBLISHED ON OCTOBER 13 2006 IN GRANADA, STATING THAT THE COMPARISONS CARRIED OUT DO NOT ALLOW US TO DETERMINE COLUMBUS’S ORIGINS, AND THAT IT IS THEREFORE IMPOSSIBLE TO PLACE HIM IN A GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION. HOWEVER, HE ALSO SAYS THAT HE WILL CONTINUE WORKING TO OBTAIN SOME REAL CONCLUSIONS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. THE PROBLEM IS THAT SINCE THEN TOO MUCH TIME HAS GONE BY AND THERE HAS BEEN NO FURTHER NEWS…

THE PROBLEM LIES IN THE FACT THAT THERE HAS BEEN A LEAKAGE OF INFORMATION AT THE VERY HIGHEST LEVEL FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF GRANADA TO BARCELONA, A LEAKAGE THAT MAY VERY WELL HAVE BEEN DELIBERATE. APPARENTLY A MATCH HAS BEEN FOUND BETWEEN CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS’S DNA AND AN ETHNIC GROUP FROM THE NORTH OF AFRICA.

IF THIS IS CONFIRMED, IT WOULD MEAN THAT THE COLÓNS LOCATED IN THE SPANISH ARCHIVES TOOK THE NAME OF COLOM WHEN THEY CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY.

SO, IT WOULD BE OF NO SURPRISE THAT THE GENETICS EXPERTS HAVE FAILED TO FIND ANY MATCHES AS WE HAVE SEEN ABOVE. THE NORTH AFRICAN EVIDENCE, WHICH HAS YET TO RECEIVE OFFICIAL CONFIRMATION, WOULD MEAN THAT THE COLUMBUS FAMILY WERE EXILED TO THE CENTRAL MAGHREB - THE AREA AROUND ALGIERS - TOWARDS THE END OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY AS A RESULT OF THE SLAUGHTER OF JEWS THAT HAD BEGUN IN 1391 IN VALENCIA, CATALONIA AND THE BALEARICS. THE JEWS LIVING IN VALENCIA AND THE BALEARICS FLED TO ALGIERS, AS THIS WAS NEARER, WHILE THE JEWS IN CATALONIA WENT INTO EXILE IN FRANCE AND ITALY.

I WOULD BE EXTREMELY SURPRISED TO LEARN THAT DR LORENTE HAS NOT ALREADY COMPARED HERNANDO COLUMBUS’S “Y” CHROMOSOME WITH THE DATABASES IN EXISTENCE IN ENGLAND AND THE USA, WHICH, BY THE WAY, HAVE DISCOVERED MATCHES BETWEEN THE DNA OF THOMAS JEFFERSON AND SOME JEWS IN EGYPT, MOROCCO AND KURDISTAN. THESE MATCHES LEAD US TO THINK THAT THE THIRD PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES WAS ALSO OF JEWISH DESCENT.

I REALLY FAIL TO UNDERSTAND THE REASONS FOR THE RELUCTANCE APPARENTLY EXISTING IN SPAIN TO ADMIT THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE DISCOVERER OF AMERICA WAS A CONVERTED JEW, A SUBJECT OF THE OLD CROWN OF ARAGON AND, ACCORDING TO ALL MY RESEARCH AND CONCLUSIONS, A MEMBER OF A DISTINGUISHED IBIZAN FAMILY.

AND WHAT PROOF DO WE HAVE? FIRST OF ALL WE HAVE THE COLOM FAMILY, CONSISTING OF EMINENT POLITICIANS AND TRADERS, WELL DOCUMENTED IN IBIZA. THEN WE HAVE CATALAN AS HIS FIRST LANGUAGE AND THIRDLY, THE PLACE NAMES FROM IBIZA AND FORMENTERA WHICH COLUMBUS CARRIED TO THE CARIBBEAN DURING HIS FOUR VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY.

Atheneum of Barcelona, December 18, 2008. Telematic intervention of Dr. Estelle Irizarry from Georgetown University, Washington, DC. (Foto: J. M. Subirà)

COLUMBUS AND VESTED INTERESTS

NO UNIVERSAL FIGURE HAS BEEN SO WIDELY DEBATED, NOR HAS GIVEN RISE TO SO MUCH CONTROVERSY, AS THE DISCOVERER OF AMERICA. HIS ORIGINS SEEM TO HAVE TURNED INTO SOME DARK OBJECT OF DESIRE, YET THERE REMAINS ONE INDISPUTABLE FACT AND THAT IS THAT HE CAN ONLY COME FROM ONE PARTICULAR PLACE AND BELONG TO ONE SPECIFIC COMMUNITY.

THE SUBJECT IS SO SENSITIVE THAT, IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE CENTENARY CELEBRATIONS OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA, THERE WAS A SURGE OF ANTI-COLUMBUS FEELING, AND HE WAS BLAMED FOR ALL THE BAD THINGS THAT HAVE BEFALLEN THE AMERICAN PEOPLE SINCE THE DISCOVERY. AND THIS WAS SIMPLY NOT SO.

THE RESEARCH CARRIED OUT BY MAURICE DAVID, SIMON WIESENTHAL AND SALVADORDE MADARIAGA, WHO DISCOVERED CLEAR SIGNS OF COLUMBUS’S JEWISH DESCENT, HAS GIVEN RISE TO THE INCONGRUITY THAT SEVERAL RABBIS AND PROFESSORS OF HEBREW HISTORY, PARTICULARLY THOSE IN THE UNITED STATES, HAVE REFUSED TO EVEN CONSIDER THE POSSIBILITY OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS HAVING BEEN A JEW.

THEREFORE, IN THE WORDS OF PROFESSOR IRIZARRY: “NOW MORE THAN EVER, IT IS VITAL TO INVESTIGATE AND PRODUCE CLEAR AND TANGIBLE EVIDENCE". IT CERTAINLY REQUIRES CONSIDERABLE COURAGE TO GO AGAINST THE TIDE OF POPULAR BELIEFS, ESPECIALLY THOSE MOST DEEPLY EMBEDDED IN HISTORICAL TRADITION.


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